About The Nine Schools


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The Nine Schools refers to the primary philosophies of the Hundred Schools of Thought developed in China from the eighth to the third centuries BC. The methods, writings and practices sought to promote understanding and order and to develop values within Chinese society.

Confucianism rests upon the belief that human beings are fundamentally good, teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavour, especially self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue in a morally organised world.

Legalism literally means "house of administrative methods" or "standards/law". The Legalists pioneered the centralizing measures and the economic organization of the population by the state.

Taoism is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. Taoist ethics can vary, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei (action without intention), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity and the Three Treasures: 慈, "compassion", 儉, "frugality" and 不敢為天下先, "humility".

Mohism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science. Among its major tenets were impartial caring, altruism and universal love for all people regardless of relations or affiliations. The ideology also stressed the virtues of austerity and utilitarianism.

Agriculturalism was an early agrarian Chinese philosophy that advocated peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism, and was arguably the world's first Communist and Socialist movement that believed in a form of a classless society.

The Logicians was a school of Chinese philosophy that grew out of Mohism during the Warring States period in 479–221 BCE. There are very few surviving lines from the school which is said to reach the highest point of ancient Chinese philosophical writing.

Sun Tzu's Militarists are philosophies on warfare and strategy, these classical texts have been of great interest to contemporary interpreters, some of whom have applied them to military strategy, the martial arts, and even modern business.

Sun Tzu is traditionally credited as the author  of The Art of War, an influential work of military strategy that has affected both Western and East Asian philosophy and military thinking. His works focus much more on alternatives to battle, such as stratagem, delay, the use of spies and alternatives to war itself, the making and keeping of alliances, the uses of deceit, and a willingness to submit, at least temporarily, to more powerful foes.

School of Yin-yang attempted to explain the universe in terms of basic forces in nature: the complementary agents of yin (dark, cold, female, negative) and yang (light, hot, male, positive) and the Five Elements or Five Phases (water, fire, wood, metal, and earth).

Diplomatists were strategists who were all resourceful, intelligent, aware of the actual situation and gifted in the use of language.

*Main sources of this information are from the websites New World Encyclopaedia, Wikipedia and Chinese Thought.


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